Settlement of the County

Stedman Cabin.
The log cabin was built by M. G. Stedman in 1855 soon after his arrival in Winona County from Ohio. It is located in Pleasant Hill Township about three miles from Ridgeway.

Squatters to Settlers | Settling St. Charles. | The Western Farm & Village Association | Claiming the Land | Surveying the Land | Early Minnesota Roads | Surveyor's Notes.

Squatters to Settlers. Settlement of Wabasha's Prairie began in 1851 as soon as the news that the Dakota had signed the treaties of Mendota and Traverse des Sioux became public, eager men and women flocked to the new territory to make a claim. Prospective claimants ignored the fact that the territory was still Indian land until the treaties were approved by the senate and signed by the president. Even when these diplomatic and statutory necessities were fulfilled, these claims to the land were unlawful and would not become legal until the land was surveyed and the federal land office opened, which did not take place until 1855. Prior to that time the settlers were "squatters" whose tenure of the land depended on possession until they could register their claim and pay the government land office for the land because the Preemption Act of 1841 restricted settlement and occupation to surveyed lands only. Nevertheless, the sandbar was the site of approximately fifty shanties or primitive structures, which signified a land claim. Individuals who knew the territory and were aware that a treaty with the Indians was signed built most of these. A few settlers who were in the migration stream heading for the Fort Snelling region dropped off when they observed the potential Wabasha's prairie had to be a town of opportunity. As early as 1849, Alexander Ramsey, the territorial governor, sympathized with the squatters who he characterized as "hardy" and "enterprising" who planned to stay on the land temporarily until a new wave of "adventurers" would arrive to purchase their lands and improvements allowing them to move on to open a new frontier. Ramsey urged the passage of legislation, which would grant these settlers the preemption privilege allowing them to acquire ownership of the land they claimed. In 1851 long before the treaties were accepted and announced by the president and before the Dakota were rounded up and forced to leave their homeland, Ramsey again urged Congress to grant the preemption privilege. In his eloquent but ultimately ineffective message, Ramsey pleaded for relief for,

These hardy pioneers, who at the sacrifice of many of the comforts of life, have passed the frontiers of the Union . . . constitute the rank and file of the great army of peaceful progress , which has shed brighter lustre on our name, than all the fields red with carnage, that have witnessed the triumph of our flag. They bring with them to the wilderness, which they embellish and advance, maxims of civil liberty , not engrossed on parchments but inscribed in their hearts--not as barren abstractions, but as living principles of and practical rules of conduct. They cost the government neither monthly pay or rations--they solicit no bounty--they expect no hospital privileges--but they make the country, its history, and its glory. Extension to them of the preemption privilege would be an act of peace and repose. It would quiet titles, avoid excitement, perplexity and inconvenience, give a substantial character to frontier improvements, and secure to the enterprising settler the undisturbed possession and safe ownership of his home.

In 1853 Congress did grant temporary preemption privileges to settlers on unsurveyed lands in California. Early in 1854 permanent preemption privileges was granted to squatters in Kansas, Nebraska, Washington, and Oregon. Henry Rice, territorial delegate to Congress was able to secure from Congress on August 4, 1854 the same privileges for squatters in Minnesota. By this time the Mdewakanton had been removed to the Redwood Agency in the vicinity of Fort Ridgely and the government survey of the land had begun.

Although all of the early settlers were eager to acquire ownership of the land, their motives for enduring the hardships and insecurity of squatting on a new frontier to acquire a claim were mixed. Some were seeking permanent place to settle, others were looking for opportunities to establish a claim and then to sell it as land prices increased which was often common as successful new sites were established.

Opening a new territory to settlement attracted speculators as well as settlers. Starting out in a new county like Winona County in the early 1850's was extremely difficult. Survival on the frontier required resilient individuals who could cope with the primitive living conditions, as well as the daily hardships settlers had to endure. The Indians still remained in the area and even though they were not hostile there was little accord between the Indians and the Americans. Building materials were scarce. The area around Wabasha's prairie had abundant woods but they were oak and not suitable for construction purposes. Wood for building was gathered from the prairie and driftwood that came down the river. The frontier was not developed, the usual institutions we associate with society or civilization were not yet established.

"It will be difficult for our readers to fully appreciate the serious vexations and difficulties of those early times--houses, bridges, fences, roads to build, crops to plow and replant, all wanted to be done at the same time.... There are many who think that the early settler has a great advantage over those who come later, and they wonder why it is that the first are almost universally poor. I think we have a fair illustration of this matter in the border counties of this State where they are now (1867) crying for bread....take 160 acres of the best land in the State under the Homestead Law, which is considered so liberal....Then he has no house, no fence, no breaking, no roads, no bridges, no school house, nothing but a naked quarter section of land, surrounded by a thousand other quarter sections just like it....The fact that government has given homesteads, but lured people far into the unsettled country and left them to contend with difficulties of which they had no conception. In early days I have known men in Winona County spend $1500 in the improvement of the finest farms in the county, and then glad to sell it for one half the cost of the improvements and then go away....

This benevolent homestead law is sure to make thousands of poor men. It is no doubt good for the government, but it will be double death to the poor settler. He will nearly die from starvation and lose his farm at last. Horace Greeley may be wise in some things, but he has been a great blunderer on this land question. You can give no worse advice then to send a poor man with a family on a homestead far out on the border. It will be a homestead, no doubt, for someone, but not the poor man that turns over the first sod."

 Few people settled in the countryside surrounding Wabasha's prairie until after the land office opened in 1855. There were some adventurous souls who did climb the steep hills in front of Wabasha's prairie and move out on the high prairie beyond, some established claims upriver and downriver from Wabasha's prairie and a few entered the new territory along interior roads or paths to establish settlements in the far reaches of what was to be Winona County.

The foundation for the first log cabin beyond the bluffs was laid just fifteen years ago today (June 25, 1852)....this was the first attempt to build a human habitation on the broad prairie in what is now the First Congressional District....There is probably not an instance on record where a purely agricultural country was settled up so rapidly and so permanently as Southern Minnesota. "

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Settling St. Charles. There are three claimants for the establishment of the first settlement, which was far beyond the perimeter surrounding Wabasha's prairie in what is now St. Charles Township located on the western edge of the county. William Davidson from Clayton County, Iowa established a claim on April 6, 1853. He returned home, gathered his family, and with all their belongings in three wagons pulled by oxen accompanied by his other livestock traveled along the "old government trail" which had been used to convey the Winnebago Indians from their home in Iowa to a reservation on Long Prairie. The trip of 125 miles to St. Charles took Davidson and his family eleven days. Settlers had to "break" the prairie soil because most of the land beyond the Mississippi had never been cultivated. There were a few areas that had been used as farm plots by the Dakota. Davidson set his breaking team to work and planted a crop of corn and laid out a garden. A house was quickly erected using some materials purchased in Winona.

According to C. H. Slocumb, editor of the St. Charles Herald the first settler was Hiram Hill (Hull) formerly of Minnesota City who moved to the St. Charles area early in 1853. In May of 1853 Lewis (Louis) H. Springer brought his family, his in-laws, and another family, the Langworthy's to settle within what became the city limits of St. Charles.

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The Western Farm & Village Association.The Western Farm & Village Association was an emigration society which had been established to assist its membership, which was made up largely of New York City mechanics and their families, in settling on the Minnesota frontier. This emigration society made plans in 1851 to settle in Minnesota Territory. The association sent a "locating committee" to search out a town site for the association. The committee made up of New Yorkers William Haddock and Arthur Murphy and A. E. Bovay, a member of the committee who lived in Wisconsin. They arrived in LaCrosse in February, 1852, skated up the frozen Mississippi River to Wabasha's prairie. They reported seeing only "four or five shanties" there but all of the land had been claimed and there were already disputes over claims. They noted that they had heard in LaCrosse that this town site was considered by many in LaCrosse to be the most promising place between LaCrosse and Lake Pepin. From their observations, however the place was not promising. While it had a good landing, the land was poor and it seemed prone to flooding. They skated further up the river until they found "a most beautiful opening of comparatively high table- land, covered with oak....it is beautiful and throws Wabasha (prairie) and Prairie LaCrosse in the shade." Unfortunately the three explorers thinking they were on the main channel of the river had skated off the river and up Strait slough to the mouth of Rollingstone Valley. They also found that the site they had chosen was claimed and occupied by Israel M. Noracong. They told Noracong of their plans for a colony. Noracong was convinced that the establishment of this proposed colony was an golden opportunity and he sold the association his claim exclusive of fifteen acres which he kept for himself. The association laid claim to all of the Rollingstone Valley and the lands adjacent to it. Murphy returned to New York to notify the association members of their new townsite while Haddock remained to occupy the claim and to complete a survey of village lots. The association met in New York, accepted the site claimed by its search committee and distributed the town lots among its members in a lottery. The lots in the lottery were limited to 132 surveyed lots, those members who chose a number over 132 would be allowed to chose a lot in Rollingstone. A "pioneer squad" of eleven men left New York City on April 7, 1852 to hold the claim until the other members of the association arrived in Minnesota. In May about fifty more members of the association arrived in the Rollingstone Valley. The members of the Town & Village Association were joined by others seeking land in the new territory.

  In 1852 the Western Farm & Village Association transferred its charter to the Rollingstone Colony where it was governed by the same officers it had elected in New York City. On May 6, 1852 the association held its first formal meeting in the new colony. There were 52 members present, a few were single men, but most were married men with families. Three day later at a general meeting of the association the name of Minnesota City was chosen for the village. On May 15 Robert Pike, Jr., E. B. Drew, and C. R. Coryell were chosen to survey the association's land for farms which would be distributed to the members according to the numbers chosen in the lottery. Association members lived in the village until the spring of 1853, then many moved out to farms when the land was surveyed.

Some enterprising members of the colony traveled into the interior of the county and established claims in what was to be Stockton, Hillsdale Township and Utica, Utica Township. There was much enthusiasm in the early days of the colony.

Alexander Ramsey, Governor of the Territory of Minnesota visited the colony and offered his assistance although he apparently believed that they would be better off if they should settle closer to St. Paul. There was a firm belief in the colony that Minnesota would be an ideal connection to the Mississippi River. A committee was formed to send three colonists to explore the interior to determine the best route for a wagon road and possibly a railroad between the colony and town sites that were emerging along the St. Peter and the Blue Earth rivers. After traveling to Mankato the committee split up due to sickness and returned by separate routes. The committee members presented two different reports. Robert Pike Jr and William Stevens proposed a route through Faribault to Traverse des Sioux (Mankato) which was adopted by the colony. Issac Noracong along with one of the proprietors of Mankato who accompanied him on the return journey proposed a more southern route to Mankato. They made plans for public improvements like roads and bridges. Even a newspaper to be called the Minnesota City Standard was planned. William Haddock, who had some experience in printing, returned to New York to bring back his wife and family He purchased a printing press and other materials there. On the return journey he was able to get the press only as far as Dubuque but he was could not afford to pay the freight charges to transport it upriver to Minnesota City.

A census of the association was conducted on May 20 revealed that there were 90 members of the association with 400 women and children. The colony continued to grow as new arrivals to the community continued through out May and June but then began to decline in July.

By this time the member's hopes, plans, and even some of their lives had been destroyed. What had seemed to be an ideal setting for a new town site soon turned into a disaster. Travel to the frontier was difficult, especially for those with families, furnishings, and supplies. The conditions in the new town site, of course, were crude and the weather in early Spring in Minnesota can be harsh. Few of these new settlers had any experience in frontier living. They were not used to camping out. They hastily constructed "Gopher huts" which were nothing more than dugouts covered by a roof of logs covered by branches and dirt fashioned in such a way to drain off the rain to protect themselves and their families. Many people fell ill because they were exposed to the elements and were unable to ward off diseases like cholera and typhus. The materials for a town hall for Minnesota were purchased and delivered to Minnesota City but due to sickness the hall was never built. Minnesota's bitter winters claimed their share of victims. One poor young boy lost his way tending his father's cattle and froze to death.

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After arriving in LaCrosse it became an even greater problem to get upriver to Rollingstone Valley. A rivalry had developed between the two town sites and Haddock warned oncoming settlers to avoid Wabasha's prairie. He advised members of the association not to take passage on Captain Orrin Smith's Nominee because Smith landed the settlers at Wabasha's prairie, which was his town site, and refused to take them upstream to the colony.

Smith and other steamboat captains claimed that the "Location Committee" had left the main channel of the river to ascend Straight Slough and had established their colony six miles from the main channel. Minnesota City officials claimed that the riverboat captain's especially Smith were attempting to restrict the colony's growth because it was in competition with Wabasha's prairie. Colony organizers claimed that they had surveyed Straight Slough to the river and had conducted soundings which proved that the largest riverboats on the river could land at Minnesota City. Colony officials took their charts and plead their case to the steamboat owners in Galena who referred them to Captain Orrin Smith. Smith, who claimed he was being charged unfairly, offered to let the colony officials pilot his boat the Nominee along the route they had surveyed. The Nominee arrived at Johnson's Landing and was turned over to the committee. The boat ascended the slough for about a mile and then ran aground on a sand bar that had escaped the committee's survey. Attempts were made to remove the sandbar but they were unsuccessful. The knowledge that the colony was far from the river and that it would never be a river port in addition to the many hardships that members of the association had suffered led to a speedy collapse of the Western Farm & Village Association's dream of a thriving river city.

Few members of the association persisted in their attempt to establish a new life on the frontier. Many gave up their claims to the land and returned to New York. Some went back to "civilization" in Illinois or Wisconsin. Some of the members who were better established stayed on, settled in Wabasha's prairie, or ventured out into the county to establish new town sites or claim farmland. In 1883 at the time of the publication of H. H. Hill's History of Winona County there were approximately 20 people living in or around Minnesota City who were members of the original Western Farm & Village Association.

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Claiming the Land. M. Wheeler Sargeant, in a speech to the Winona Lyceum in 1858 declared that "a claim is a fighting interest in land, ostensibly based upon priority of possession and sustained by force." The early history of Winona County revolved around extinguishing the Indian title to the land, removing the Indians and opening the land to occupation and development by "Americans." The ratification and implementation of the treaties of Mendota and Traverse des Sioux extinguished the Dakota claim to southern Minnesota. But even before the treaty was debated or before the army rounded up the remaining Indians and herded them off to the reservation, the land hungry settlers led by greedy prospectors and speculators poured across the Mississippi to acquire the most promising or the most profitable land.

"It is said 'there are tricks in every trade but ours.' Claim making was a peculiar science, and could only be learned by a residence (sic) in a claim country. First, when you measure a claim you must look out that there are 320 acres instead of 160, which the law allows. You must claim for yourself and some brother, father, cousin, friend, that you expect will come soon, so as to be your neighbor. You must claim so that you can sell a claim and have one or more left.

The old law did not allow a man to make a claim who was the owner of 160 acres of land. Neither did it allow a man who had once made a claim and purchased at the land office, to make a second one.

Many men who by law had no right to claims, would be the first to make them. They came to a new country to make a business of selling claims. They had them in all parts of the country, and could furnish them to order for one or a half dozen families....

Many had been up from LaCrosse in the Winter, and walked over the prairie and had made claims for themselves or for their friends, leaving marks to indicate the location or the extent of the claim. Others had claimed the same ground--so of course there was room for any amount of litigation. The claim laws were very imperfectly understood. Possession was nine points of the law. I may say here that all quarrels arose from persons who had not been residents. If a man made a claim and had made no improvements and left no marks to indicate the bounds of his claim it would not be respected.

There was always someone watching to take advantage of a few days absence. If there was any improvements going on, such as breaking, fencing, or building; or if those things had been done, no one would disturb the claim unless there was an absence of more than six months."

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Surveying the Land. Beginning in 1785 with the Northwest Ordinance the United States government, first under the Articles of Confederation and later under the Constitution of the United States, was involved in regulating the land in its territories which encompassed millions of acres of land. The government developed a systematic process of land surveys and sales that has made a deep impact on the physical configuration or landscape of the land and on the legal definition of the land. Beginning in 1785 the land in the territories of the United States was to be surveyed and divided into congressional townships of 36 square miles. In some counties, including Winona, the contour of the terrain and the state boundary of the Mississippi River prevented the creation of square counties made up of congressional townships. In Winona County all the townships exclusive of Hillsdale and those bordering the Mississippi River, Dresbach, Dakota, Homer, Winona, and Rollingstone are congressional townships. This land process was designed to simplify the identification and sale of tracts of land. Townships were divided into sections of 680 acres or one square mile. Sections were subdivided into half sections (320 acres), quarter sections (160 acres) and parcels of land called eighties (80 acres) and forties (40 acres) which was the smallest amount of land sold at the government land office.

According to United States law, government land was not available for sale until it had been surveyed and the government land office in the area was open for business. Such legal niceties were lost upon most Americans who were seeking new land on the frontier. The usual practice was to move onto new land as soon as practicable and to "squat" there until the survey and land office caught up with the settlers. To avoid the conflicts which often occurred between "squatters" and their rights to claims, the Congress had passed a law in 1807 interdicting all squatting on government lands. In 1837 this law was suspended by Congress for the Wisconsin Territory. The Pre-emption Act of 1841 recognized squatters claims which had been established before the land was offered for sale. This law made it possible for settlers to purchase land at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre instead of having to bid for it at public land auction. Pre-emptors were required to file a declaratory statement within three months after the land office had received the survey plat of the township or within three months of making settlement. The declaratory statement had to include the date of settlement and the improvements made to determine the validity of the pre-emption. When a public land sale was announced pre-emptors had to pay for the land before the day of the sale or lose it to the highest bidder. In Minnesota squatters were not protected by the pre-emption Act of 1841 because the land was not surveyed. Preemption of unsurveyed land was not legal in Minnesota until 1854.

Geographer Hildegard Binder Johnson of Macalester College devoted much of her work to studying the land and settlement of southeaster Minnesota and to the Whitewater Valley in particular. In her most important work, Order Upon the Land: The U.S. Rectangular Land Survey and the Upper Mississippi Country she describes the land configuration of the Upper Mississippi country from the perspective of a German immigrant who compared what she saw here to her European experience. She had first believed the land, towns, and villages of this area to be dull and boring but then realized that within the systematic land system settlers and farmers had individualized the landscape into a complex, beautiful, human environment.

Contrary to the popular notion that land was purchased and settled in squares usually in the form of half sections or quarter sections, Binder Johnson describes many configurations of land settlement and purchase which were chosen to fit the uneven contours of the Upper Mississippi Hill Country. "Pioneers preferred to settle in valleys and on rolling upland as close as possible to roads and timber." Settlers studied the land and claimed the best land by purchasing "forties" which were adjacent to each other in order to avoid gorges and other inaccessible areas. The first improvement the pioneer farmer made was to construct a shelter. In the first year they often used a wagon or built a dugout in the side of a hill. Simple shelters were built for animals constructed with crotched posts covered with sticks and branches and prairie grass. Later a log cabin was built. The second improvement was to clear the land which was a lengthy process. The prairie sod had to be broken with steel plows. Farmers were able to clear about five acres a year.

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Early Minnesota Roads.

Roads in the Sotheastern Minnesota, 1854
Settlement followed the crude roads that were available. Roads were built on traces or paths worn by the passage of Indians and their travois and followed later by speculators, squatters, surveyors, and settlers.

In the early 1850's many land scouts and squatters--most of them from St. Louis or Dubuque--moved across the trail, which is still called "the old territorial road" by descendants of pioneer settlers in Winona County. Meandering through the Mississippi flats on the west bank of the river opposite Prairie LaCrosse, the trail climbed the divide between the Root River and Pine Creek and after a short distance on the upland, joined a road from Wabasha prairie. It entered Winona County at the southeast corner (section 36) of pleasant hill township and continued through the settlement of Ridgeway, extending into sections 9 and 8 of the same township. The road continued on the divide between tributaries of the Root River toward the south, and Garvin Creek, Rollingstone Creek, and the forks of the Whitewater toward the north.

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There was a road along the Mississippi River connecting Wabasha's prairie to Minnesota City which became a part of the mail route to Traverse des Sioux in 1855. This was the "military road" which was authorized by Congress due to the eloquent arguments of Delegate Henry Sibley and a combination of western states that held together to approve funding for internal improvements responding to southern critics of such federal expenditures.

The federal land survey began in 1853 in southeastern Minnesota. Within two years 137 townships had been surveyed. In 1854 government land offices were opened in Brownsville, Winona, Red Wing, and Minneapolis. The land offices were operated by a registrar, a receiver and a number of clerks. Usually the registrar and the receiver were lawyers who were able and willing to handle disputes between rival claimants.

In the Hill Country west of the Mississippi Winona was the fastest growing river port in the 1850s. Its land office, opened in early January 1855, had listed 748 entries by October 28, some as far west as Rice County. Yet sales were slow during the first few months. The first two claims dated January 17 and 29, were for tracts in Wilson township adjacent to Winona township. Only seven more claims were entered up to April 2, one of which was farther inland on the prairie of Winona County , southeast of Rochester. During April most entries covered tracts around Rochester and along the Middle Branch of the Zumbro River. By the end of May the plat of Winona Township was nearly covered, and during June the western half of Olmsted County was dotted with entries. Some bottom land in the valleys of the Rollingstone and Whitewater rivers northwest of Winona was also occupied.

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Surveyor's Notes. The surveyors notes as well as the land plats were open to public examination to those who were going to purchase land or those who were filing claims. The notes made by the surveyors were very informative for land purchasers but it is not known how much use was made of them because pre-emption of the land had occurred in Winona county before the survey. Certainly those who purchased land after the claims had been filed probably used the plats and the notes.

Notes describing the land were taken by surveyors which provided a description of the land. These notes were transcribed with the other information placed on the plat and one copy of them was deposited in the land office where the land was being sold, so potential buyers had the opportunity to review what the surveyors thought about the land. Below are descriptions of two townships in Winona County.

[Norton Township] Of superb soil the whole township is an elevated plain intersected with deep and precipitous ravines which drain all the water from the upper level of the country therefore all the water issues in springs low down in these ravines and forms beautiful clear brooks. The water is inconvenient for farming purposes. All the springs in this township empty through the Rollingstone [River]. The timber excepting a little on the main fork of the Rollingstone is very small and poor not enough for farming purposes. Sandstone is the prevailing rock underlying the township.

 [Mount Vernon Township] This township like the one immediately south of it is very fertile, has a rich alluvial soil but is almost entirely without timber. The wood is covered with small scattered oak which will furnish timber whether for building houses or fuel. There is not a supply of water. Trout Creek runs through the NW portion of it and a small branch is in the SE corner. The Mississippi bluff furnish two small spring branches. All the water in this township is deep down in the ravines almost inaccessible from the highland. On the whole this township is far from valuable for farming.

 Townships with Mississippi River borders were settled first. Dresbach, Homer, and New Hartford Townships, had permanent settlers who claimed land in the 1840's. Richmond Township was first settled in 1850 and Winona Township in 1851. Rollingstone, and Mount Vernon Townships were settled in 1852. Residents from Minnesota City claimed the first land in Norton, Hillsdale Saratoga, and Utica Townships also in 1852. The claim in Saratoga proved to be temporary and permanent settlement there did not occur until 1855. Mount Vernon and Whitewater in the upper tier of townships, and Wilson Township adjacent to Winona Township were settled in 1852. Fremont, Hart, Pleasant Hill, and Elba Townships were settled in 1854. Wiscoy Township was settled in 1855. Fremont, Hart, Pleasant Hill, Saratoga, and Wiscoy Townships are all in the lower tier of townships in the county. Only New Hartford and Dresbach in that tier were settled earlier.

After the United States Land Office opened in Winona on January 1, 1855 settlement moved from east to west along the "territorial road that connected Winona to Rochester. After land nearest to the road was claimed the outlying areas were purchased.


 
 

1. Council Journal, 1851, cited in William W. Folwell, A History of Minnesota Vol 1, (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1921), 355.

2. Rev. Edward Ely, "Rev. Edward (Elder) Ely's Journal," June 6, 1852, Leaf No. 29, Archives/Manuscripts, Minnesota Historical Society.

3. Edward Elder, "Journal," Sheaf 45, June 25, 1867.

4. Curtis-Wedge, History of Winona County, Vol 2, 599-600; A History of St. Charles 1854-1954, (St. Charles:St. Charles Press, 1954), 3-4.

5. Curtis-Wedge, History of Winona, 149-176; Arthur J. Larsen, ""Roads and Trails in the Minnesota Triangle, 1849-60," Minnesota History, 11, (December, 1930), 390-393

6. History of Wabasha County [and Winona], (Chicago: 1884), 176, 278

7. Edward Ely, "Journal", Sheaf No. 33, June 11, 1852; Sheaf No. 35, June 13, 1852.

8. Hildegarde Binder Johnson, Order Upon the Land: The U.S. Rectangular Survey and the Upper Mississippi Country (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976)

9. Binder Johnson, Order Upon the Land, Preface; 84-85; 140-141; 151-152.

10. Curtis-Wedge, History of Winona County, 169; Binder Johnson, Order Upon the Land, 84; Larsen, "Roads in the Minnesota Triangle 390-393.

11.  Hildegard Binder Johnson, Order Upon the Land the U.S. Rectangular Land Survey and the Upper Mississippi Country (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 134; H. B. Johnson, "Rational and Ecological Aspects of the Quarter Section," The Geographical Review, vol 47 (1957) 330-48.

12. Binder Johnson, Order Upon the Land, 127-128.

13. Hildegarde Binder Johnson, Order Upon the Land, 79.

14. Hildegarde Binder Johnson, "Rational and Ecological Aspects of the Quarter Section An Example from Minnesota" The Geographical Review Vol 27 (1957) 334-335.

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